For the first time in a while (from 2013), the situation in the labor market began to stabilize in Ukraine: the number of employed people has increased and unemployment has decreased. This was stated by the Acting Head of the State Employment Service Valerii Yaroshenko.
The highest rate of employment was observed in the city of Kyiv (61.3%), Kharkiv (60.5%), Kyiv (58.6%), Dnipropetrovsk (58.5%) and Mykolayiv (57.8%) regions, and the lowest – in Ternopil (50.3%), Donetsk (49.7%) and Volyn (48.6%) regions.
For July 1, 2018, among the registered Ukrainian unemployed, 30% were people aged from 15 to 29 years, 28% – people aged from 30 to 39 years, 22% – aged from 40 to 49 years.
According to V. Yaroshenko, the growth in the number of employed to 16 million people is an extremely positive trend, while the reduction in the unemployment rate to 9.7% (altogether-1,700,000 people), according to the ILO methodology, is an indicator, characterizing the gradual emerging of the labor market from the crisis. At the same time, the unemployment rate in Ukraine is still above the average for almost all EU countries – 7.4%.
Among the main problems is the vocational qualification imbalance in the supply and demand of the workforce. In particular, 70% of graduates of educational institutions receive higher education, 30% – vocational whereas in Europe the indicators are the opposite. As a consequence, in some places among the registered unemployed, more than 80% have higher education (Odesa – 89%, Kyiv – 87%, Lviv – 85%, Kharkiv – 82%, Dnipro – 80%). At the same time, skilled workers – seamstresses, locksmiths, electricians, electric gas welders, masons, painters, path installers, concrete workers, drivers, tractor drivers, turners, carpenters, bakers and so forth are in great demand among employers.
Another problem is a significant amount of informal employment. According to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, the informal sector employs 3,500,000 people (22% of the employed population). But these numbers can be bigger. Negative factor in the labor market is also a low level of wages in comparison with the EU countries, stimulates the problem of labor migration.
Ukrainian hands abroad
By the way, the demand for specialists from Ukraine in the foreign labor market is quite high. The “blue collars” are, again, especially welcome. According to the State Employment Service, only in 2017 offers for them became 11% more. Foreign employers offer representatives of the working class up to seven average Ukrainian salaries per month, which is about 2,000 USD.
Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany, Israel, Slovakia and Lithuania are most interested in the Ukrainian hands. Employers from Sweden, Hungary and Finland are also ready to employ citizens of Ukraine. More than 2,000 jobs can be found in 22 countries.
The unconditional leader in the employment of Ukrainians is Poland. So, on the OLX portal, Poland accounts for 77% of all job offers in the category “Working Abroad”. The highest salaries are offered the furniture makers – 56,550 UAH. Worthy remuneration for labor is received by representatives of the construction, transport and logistics industries and production workers. The second place in terms of the number of job offers and salaries abroad is occupied by the Czech Republic.
According to the results of a survey, conducted by the Sociological Group “Rating”, on the request of the recruiting company “Personnel Service” (Poland), among the adults of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ternopil, Lutsk, who have worked in Poland for the past five years. More than half of them have experience of earning a living in a neighboring country and went there to work no more than three times (25% – no more than once, 34% – two or three times). 13% said they sought employment abroad from three to five times, 18% – more than five times, and 7% said that they work on the ongoing basis. A somewhat greater experience of staying is recorded among men, older respondents (aged 51 and over) and those with a secondary education level.
More than half of the respondents said that they spent from one to three months working in Poland. A quarter – from three to six months, 14% – from six months to a year, 3% – more than a year. The majority of people, who stayed longer in Poland is the oldest ones and who had already gone to work there more than three times.
77% of respondents said that in Poland they mainly performed physical work, 16% worked in the service sector, the activity of 3% was related to intellectual sphere, and only 1% worked in managerial positions. Men in almost the absolute majority (89%) did physical work, only 6% of them worked in the service sector. Among women, 63% were engaged in physical work, 28% in the service sector. The higher the level of education, the more respondents found work in the service sector or were engaged in intellectual work.
34% worked in Poland on agricultural work (more often women and senior respondents), 32% – building or repair works (more often men, youth and middle-aged people). 8% did housework, 7% worked in the restaurant business, 5% – in hotels, 4% – caring for the elderly and disabled people, 3% were involved in other activities, less than 3% worked in the service sector. The higher the level of education, the more often the workers found work not related to agriculture or construction.
More than 80% sought work with the help of relatives and friends: 66% with the help of relatives in Ukraine, 21% – in Poland. Only 10% used to find work through Ukrainian employment agencies and 3% – through Polish ones. 6% found work through ads in the Ukrainian media, 2% – the Polish media, 5% – social networks (Facebook, Linkedin, etc.). Less than 1% of respondents used the services of state employment services in Ukraine and Poland.
The main source of job search for all categories of respondents is predominantly close people in Ukraine. At the same time, younger respondents more often used Ukrainian agencies, ads in the domestic media and social networks for employment.
Two-thirds never sent money to the family in Ukraine during their stay at work in Poland. 6% noted that they sent their families up to 500 PLN per month, 8% – from 500 to 1000 PLN, 11% – more than 1000 PLN. The more respondents were at work in Poland, the larger amounts sent money to their families in Ukraine.
Among the countries, where workers would like to work the most, 30% chose Poland, 27% – Germany, 22% – the USA, 20% – Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark), 18% – Czech Republic, 13% – Great Britain, 12% – Canada, 7% – the Netherlands and Belgium. No more than 6% of respondents chose other countries. Respondents, who chose Poland more often than others were men and persons with a secondary level of education. USA, Canada, Great Britain and Scandinavian countries are more desirable for persons with a higher education.
A conscious business is open to people with disabilities
The number of employed people in Ukraine is increasing slightly and at the expense of people with disabilities. The social movement for an inclusive Ukrainian society “Tak Mae Buty” (“It should be so”), focused on the promotion of employment for people with disabilities, together with the American Chamber of Commerce and the European Business Association conducted a survey of the level of inclusiveness of the main employers. 47 companies participating in the survey were members of the American Chamber of Commerce in Ukraine and the European Business Association.
Companies are positive towards the inclusion in the workplace. 71% of them declared their readiness to accept people with disabilities to work. 29% need an additional consultation to determine.
Employers are aware of the importance of their position on the way to an inclusive society in Ukraine: 85% of respondents believe that it is a business that is responsible for socializing people with disabilities and creating available space inside and outside the office.
Contrary to the existing prejudice that people with disabilities are seen, mainly on low-skilled jobs, the survey showed that employers are ready to offer a wide range of positions for workers with disabilities. For example, 83% of those polled are ready to consider a candidate with physical disabilities in positions that mainly involve intellectual work (accounting and finance, IT, marketing, legal department, etc.); 75% – for administrative positions; 75% – for working positions.
However, despite the openness, Ukrainian business still needs to overcome a number of obstacles in order to become truly inclusive. Despite the declared openness, 36% of companies recognized that they employ fictitious people with disabilities, that is, they have workbooks instead of real people. One of the reasons for this situation may be the shortage of job seekers. 47% of respondents noted that they find it difficult to find workers with disabilities because very few such applicants respond to vacancies. Another obstacle that hinders the employment of workers with physical disabilities may be the inability of the working space to meet their needs. 74% of employers stated that they had unsuitable working space (lack of ramps, wide doors, thresholds, adapted toilets, tactile tiles on the floor, Braille marks, etc.), and only 17% of companies are willing to invest in creating an available workspace.
Another 65% of respondents noted that they are ready to invest in creating conditions for employment of people with disabilities: to introduce internship programs, to conduct training for the team for interaction with colleagues with disabilities, to inform about job opportunities etc..
“The poll showed that there is already a conscious business in the country that overcame Soviet stereotypes and is open to workers with disabilities, and also realizes its role in creating an inclusive Ukraine. Nevertheless, 73.8% of people with physical disabilities, according to the Ministry of Social Policy, are still not employed. Employers should move from words to deeds and introduce real changes: invest in the accessibility of the workplace, internship programs and training for people with disabilities, refuse fictitious employment for the benefit of real workers, or pay fines consciously. We are convinced that the active position of business in this issue will increase the number of really working Ukrainians with disabilities”, Natalya Popovych, the president of One Philosophy Group of Companies, summed up.
Text: Hanna Drozd